Bone-marrow is the spongy tissue present in the bones in the human body. It is responsible for the formation of blood cells. The blood cell components formed by the Bone-Marrow are Hematopoietic Stem Cells or HSCs. The Hematopoietic cells are further responsible for the creation of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
In short, it is the life forming unit of the body. So, for healthy existence, it is essential that the Bone-Marrow of a person is in perfect condition. In case there is any damage to the bone marrow, it calls for Bone-Marrow Transplant. Now, the question arises what a Bone-Marrow Transplant is?
A medical procedure that is carried out to replace the original bone-marrow in the body that is either destroyed or damaged. The bone marrow may be destroyed because of any disease, specific infection or as a result of chemotherapy.
The process involves the transplantation of blood stem cells. These blood stem cells travel to Bone-Marrow and produce new blood cells. Apart from that, the transplanted stem cells also help in the growth of the bone marrow. Based on the procedures, Bone-Marrow Transplant is of three different types, let us check all the classes in brief.
Different types of BMT are:
In this type of transplant, the patient does not require the donor. The surgeon makes use of the patient’s stem cells for the transplantation. He first removes the stem cells from the body of the patient before carrying out any medical procedure. Then preserves these healthy stem cells and lastly eliminates the damaged or diseased part of the stem cell.
It is possible for a surgeon to collect healthy bone-marrow or stem cells by using bone-marrow harvesting or stem-cell mobilisation.
This type of transplant is not possible without a donor. In this type of Bone-Marrow Transplantation, the essential requirement is the close match of the stem cells. In most of the cases, the preferred option is a blood-related donor.
But in case of unavailability, doctors consider even the unrelated donor. However, there is no compromise regarding the match exaction of stem cells. Once, the surgeon finds the matching donor; he makes use of the donor’s stem cells for transplantation.
When it is about Allogeneic Bone-Marrow Transplant, higher the degree of match, higher are the chances of success..
It is a subtype of Allogeneic Bone-Marrow Transplant wherein the surgeon uses frozen-stem cells to complete the surgery. He receives the cells from the umbilical cord of a new-born baby.
One can use Umbilical Cord Bone-Marrow Transplant without considering a perfect match. It is because the stem cells of a new-born baby are immature. But, the count of stem cells is very less in this case, so the blood count takes a lot of time to recover.
The procedure is not same for all but varies depending upon the type of transplant, disease for which the bone-marrow transplantation is to be carried out, health conditions of the patient, tolerance capacity of the patient etc. You can understand the process of Bone-marrow transplant easily in following steps